TABLE I QI Methodologies and Some Associated Tools
DescriptionUseful Tools
PDSAA cycle for process analysis and improvement
  • PDSA cycles

  • Fishbone diagrams

TQMManagement strategy that promotes team-based approach to quality improvement
  • TQM team

  • Staff education

  • PDSA cycles

  • Brainstorming

  • Process flowcharts

  • Relations diagrams

Six SigmaProduction technique designed to reduce variation and error in a system

  • Process mapping

  • Cause and effect diagrams

  • Fishbone diagrams

  • Root-cause analysis

LeanProduction technique designed to eliminate non-value-adding components in a system
  • QI team

  • Toyota Production System

  • 5S technique

  • Pull system (kanban)

  • Value stream map