TABLE III

Case Series of Localized and Diffuse TGCT Involving Foot and Ankle*

StudyNo. of CasesNo. of Primary Procedures (Type of Procedure)Adjuvant Radiation TherapyMean Duration of Follow-up (mo)Recurrence (no. of patients)Bone Involvement (no. of patients)Local Extension (no. of patients)Routine Follow-up Imaging
Diffuse TGCT
 Bickels et al.73 (2008)77 (open)Intra-articular470 (0%)NRNRMRI
 Bisbinas et al.72 (2004)22 (open)EBRT412 (100%)NR2 (100%)MRI
 Brien et al.69 (2004)1111 (open)EBRT421 (9%)10 (91%)7 (64%)NR
 Ghert et al.75 (1999)65 (open), 1 (amputation)No131 (17%)4 (66%)4 (67%)NR
 Korim et al.48 (2014)88 (open)No482 (25%)NR3 (38%)MRI
 Lee et al.71 (2005)77 (open)EBRT0 (0%)NRNRMRI
 Rochwerger et al.18 (1999)86 (arthrodesis), 1 (amputation), 1 (open)No480 (0%)7 (88%)7 (88%)No
 Saxena and Perez19 (2004)55 (open)No512 (40%)4 (80%)2 (40%)NR
 Sharma et al.76 (2006)55 (open)No542 (40%)NRNRNR
 Stevenson et al.20 (2013)1813 (open), 2 (arthroscopic), 3 (conservative)No620 (0%)5 (28%)7 (39%)MRI
 Sung and Ko68 (2015)77 (open)No333 (43%)§2 (29%)NRMRI and/or US
Localized TGCT
 Bisbinas et al.72 (2004)77 (open)0410 (0%)NRNRNR
 Gibbons et al.37 (2002)1716 (open), 1 (amputation)0850 (0%)4 (24%)NRNR
 Korim et al.48 (2014)2222 (open)0480 (0%)NRNRNo
 Sharma et al.76 (2006)97 (open), 2 (amputation)0540 (0%)NRNRNR
 Sung and Ko68 (2015)32 (open), 1 (arthroscopic)0331 (33%)0 (0%)NRNR
 Zhang et al.42 (2013)2019 (open), 1 (arthroscopic)0NR (range, 3 to 60)4 (20%)2 (10%)NRNR
  • * ERBT = external beam radiation therapy, NR = not reported, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, and US = ultrasound.